Country Profile: India 


Human development index (for 2005)
Human development index rank  128 (UNDP 2007)
GDP per capital (PPP) $3 452 (UNDP 2007)*
Life Expectancy at birth (years) 63.7 (UNDP 2007)
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary education  63.8 per cent (UNDP 2007)**
Total population mid-2007 1 169 016 000 (United Nations 2006)
Population of persons with disabilities (a) 21 900 000 (2002) (India 2006)
(b) 18 490 000 (2002) (India 2002)
Proportion of persons with disabilities to total population (a) 2.13 per cent (2002) (India 2006)***
(b) 1.8 per cent (2002) (India 2002)****
definition of disability  “i. blindness;
ii. low vision;
iii. leprosy-cured;
iv. hearing impairment;
v. locomotor disability;
vi. mental retardation;
vii. mental illness.” (India 1996, chap. I, art. 2, para. i)
definition of persons with disabilities “[A] person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority” (India 1996, chap. I, art. 2, para. t)
Employment rate of persons with disabilities (a) 34 per cent (2002) (India 2006);
(b) 26 per cent (2002) (India 2002)
Access to education  Access to education 47.5 per cent in the rural area and 44.4 per cent in the urban area (India 2002)*****
Institutional framework
National coordination mechanism or disability focal point  Central Coordination Committee and Central Executive Committee, established in 1997 under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (ESCAP 2004c, Q 1-b)
Number of members and composition of the mechanism A total of 38 members in the Central Coordination Committee, representing relevant departments of the Central Government and the Union, the Parliament, national institutes for disabled people, and NGOs, chaired by the
Minister of Social Justice and empowerment. The Central Executive Committee, with 22 members, is the executive wing of the Central Coordination Committee (ESCAP 2004c, Q 1-b)
Legislative and policy framework
Mention on disability in constitution   “The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of … disablement ...”(India 1949, art. 41)
comprehensive disability law Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (India 1996)
Disabilitiy-specific anti discrimination law Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (India 1996)

Sectoral disbility laws The Mental Health Act, 1987 (India 1987) Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992 (India 1992) National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999 (India 1999)
National plan of action on disability  National Policy for Persons with Disabilities (India 2006)
National efforts to promote an Inclusive Society
Employment quota scheme  Not less than 3 per cent of Government posts (India 1996, chap. VI, art. 33)
National accessibility standard Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier Free Built Environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons (India 1998)
Standardized sign language  No (ESCAP 2004c, Q 34)
ICT accessibility guideline No (ESCAP 2004c, Q 34)
Financial commitment 
Proportion of disability (social) spending to GDP or entire national budget Not available
Annual budget allocated to the national coordination mechanism No response provided (ESCAP 2004c, Q 1-b)
Commitment to regional and international instruments on disability
Signatory to the Proclamation of the Decade 1993 (ESCAP 2004b)
Ratification of ILO Convention159 No (ILO 2009)
Ratification or signatiory of the conventions on the Rights of Person with Disabilities, and its Optional Protocol Signed the Convention on 30 March 2007
Ratified the Convention 1 October 2007 (United Nations 2009)
*World Bank estimate based on regression.
**National or UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate.
***Based on the Census 2001 estimate.
****Based on the Ministry of Statistics 2002 Disability Survey estimate.
*****The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities also refers to the 2001 Census, which reported that 49 per cent of the population of persons with disabilities is literate (India 2006).